Job training is a part of educational process and includes the activity of a specialist – instruction and activity of students — learning. Instruction and learning are closely connected and influence each other. Learning is systematic, conscious and purposeful educational work of students for acquisition of knowledge, development of abilities and skills has got exterior and interior.
Exterior of learning in the process of job training of students is revealed in their working training — fulfillment of orders and operations, to make production, regulation, setting-up of mechanism and similar industrial operations. Internal activity includes perception and understanding of instructional directions of master, reasoning and planning of forthcoming work, methods of control and self-control, mental process of searching most rational methods of work fulfillment, to do the theorizing, its check and so on.
The meaning of master’s activity on guidance of students’ job training is depended on the concrete meaning (profession, theme) and duration of training, readiness of students, conditions of training.
The process of job training is executed in different forms and by different methods. Under the forms of training the methods of building educational process are meant defining the character of job-training activity of students, management of this activity and lessons’ structure. It should distinguish organization forms of teaching and learning process and the forms of organization of students’ job training activity.
The basic form of organization of job training of students in training workshops and in job-training enterprises is lesson. (Under lesson form of organization which is characterized first of all by leading role of master, all students of group study the same learning material of one type simultaneously, fulfill stereotyped study tasks. The clearness of goal and content are inherent in lesson of job training and also in management structure – introduction advice, exercises (independent work) of students and current instruction, final instruction.
During training of students in the conditions of production (at enterprises, constructions, in economy and so on) the main forms of organization of educational process are:
- Training of students in the staff of student teams;
- Training in the teams of qualified workers;
- - Individual attachment of qualified workers to students.
- - Excursions and homework of students.
The forms of job-training activity of students using at different forms of organization of education are frontal –group, team and individual. It should not compound lesson form of education and frontal-group form of organization of job-training activity of students. Frontal-group form of activity of students is carried out mainly by holding lessons of job-training activity, excursions. And also team, individual forms of job-training activity of students are used at lessons widely. Therefore the forms of organization of education and the forms of activity of students are necessary to use together.